See preferred term Nozzle or Air Cap.


A chemical compound formed between carbon and a metal or metals; examples are tungsten carbide, tantalum carbide, titanium carbide, chromium carbide.

Carburizing Flame

A nonstandard term for reducing flame.

Carburizing Flame

A nonstandard term for reducing flame.

Carrier Gas

The gas used to carry powdered material from the powder feeder or hopper to the gun.


The twist warp or curvature of a metal wire.


The electrode maintained at a negative electric potential. In a plasma gun it is usually the rear electrode, conically shaped, and fabricated from tungsten or thoriated tungsten.

Ceramic Rod Flame Spray Gun

A flame spraying device wherein an oxyfuel gas flame provides the beat, and the surfacing material to be sprayed is in ceramic rod form.

Ceramic Rod Flame Spraying

A thermal spraying process variation in which the material to be sprayed is in ceramic rod form. See Flame Spraying (FLSP).

Ceramic Rod Speed

The length of ceramic rod sprayed in a unit of time.


A physical mixture of ceramics and metals; examples are alumina plus nickel and zirconia plus nickel.


A surfacing variation that deposits or applies surfacing material, usually to improve corrosion or heat resistance.

Clad Metal

A laminar composite consisting of a metal, with a metal of different chemical composition applied to one or two sides.

Clad Powder

See preferred term Powder Clad.

Clad Powder

See preferred term Powder Clad.

Closed Loop Control

A method to continuously monitor and control thermal spray parameters to assure repeatability of the process and coatings.


To grow or come together; fuse; unite.


(1) The act of building a deposit on a substrate, (2) the spray deposit.

Coating Density

A nonstandard term for spray deposit density ratio.

Coating Strength

(1) A measure of the cohesive bond within a coating, as opposed to coating-to-substrate bond (adhesive strength), (2) the tensile strength of a coating, usually expressed in kPa

Coating Stress

The stresses in a coating resulting from rapid cooling of molten material or semimolten particles as they impact the substrate.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

The ratio of the change in length per degree rise in temperature to the length at a standard temperature such as 200C (680F).

Cohesive Strength

See Coating Strength.


Adding a shoulder to a shaft or similar component as a protective confining wall for the thermal spray deposit.

Combination Aftercooler/Dryer

A deliquescent desiccant dryer with an integral aftercooler.

Companion Panel

A small tab coated concurrently with the workpiece, used for inspection.

Composite Coating

A coating consisting of two or more dissimilar spray materials which may or may not be layered.

Composite Powder

See preferred term Powder Composite.

Compressed Air Mask

A force feed type of face mask with a suitable regulator worn by the thermal spraying operator to provide a fresh air supply.


The conical part of an oxyfuel gas flame next to the orifice of the tip.

Contact Tube

A device which transfers current to a continuous electrode.

Control Console

The instrumented unit from which the gun is operated and operating variables are monitored and controlled.

Controlled Atmosphere Chamber

An enclosure or cabinet either filled with an inert gas or evacuated to below atmospheric pressure in which thermal spraying can be performed to minimize, or prevent, oxidation of the coating or substrate.


See preferred term Workpiece Cooler.


A plastic tube tilled with powder, and extruded to form a compact, flexible layer level wound wire-like "cord."


Thermal spraying of two or more dissimilar materials through a single gun using multiple powder injection ports.

Critical Resolved Shearing Stress

The shearing stress on the slip plane necessary to produce slip (threshold value).


See preferred term Acoustical Room.


See Gas Cylinder.

Cylinder Manifold

A multiple header for interconnection of gas or fluid sources with distribution points.

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