A measurable factor relating to several variables; loosely used to mean a spraying variable, spraying condition, spray rate, spray distance, angle, gas pressure, gas flow, etc.

Parent Metal

A nonstandard term for substrate. Metal. A nonstandard term for substrate. rent Metal. A nonstandard term for substrate.

Particle Size

The average diameter of a given powder or grit granule.

Particle Size Distribution

Classification of powdered materials as determined by various testing methods defining the particle sizes and quantities in a given sample.

Particle Size Range

See preferred term Particle Size Distribution.


A single progression of the thermal spray device across the surface of the substrate.


See preferred term Thermal Spraying Gun.


See Arc Plasma.

Plasma Forming Gas

See preferred term Arc Gas. Plasma Metallizing. A nonstandard term for plasma spraying.

Plasma Spraying (PSP)

A thermal spraying process in which a nontransferred arc is utilized as the source of heat that ionizes a gas which melts and propels the coating material to the workpiece.

Plenum Chamber

The space between the inside wall of constricting nozzle and the electrode.


Cavity type discontinuities within a sprayed coating (voids).

Postflow Time

The time interval between plasma arc shutdown and electrode cooling, to inhibit oxidation of electrodes.


The application of heat to an assembly after a thermal spraying operation.


Material manufactured into finely divided particles. When explicitly blended for thermal spraying, powder falls within a specific mesh range, usually finer than 120 mesh (125 microns). Fine powder is usually defined as having particles smaller than 325 mesh (44 microns).

Powder Alloy

Powder prepared from a homogeneous molten mixture of elements, and sometimes entrapped carbides or metal oxides. All of the particles have approximately the same composition.

Powder Blend

A heterogeneous mixture of two or more alloy powders.

Powder Clad (Wire Clad)

Powder or wire wherein one alloy is encapsulated in another; a composite.

Powder Composite

Two or more independent materials, combined to form a single integrated unit. May be either chemically clad or mechanically agglomerated.

Powder Feeder

A device for conveying powdered materials to thermal spraying equipment.

Powder Feed Gas

See preferred term Carrier Gas.

Powder Feed Rate

The quantity of powder introduced into the hot, gaseous stream per unit of time.

Powder Fame Spraying

A thermal spraying process variation in which the material to be sprayed is in powder form; all oxyfuel gas processes. See Flame Spraying (FLSP).

Powder Metallizing

A nonstandard term for powder flame spraying.

Powder Port

Internal or external orifice through which powder is injected into flame or plasma.

Prenow Time

The time interval between start of shielding gas flow and arc or gas ignition.


The heat applied to the base metal or substrate immediately before spraying.

Preheat Temperature

A specified temperature that the substrate is required to attain immediately before material deposition.

Primary Gas

The major constituent of the arc gas fed to the gun to produce the plasma; usually argon or nitrogen.


The detailed elements of a process or method used to produce a specific result.

Protective Atmosphere

A gas envelope or vacuum surrounding the part to be thermally sprayed, with the gas composition controlled with respect to chemical composition; dewpoint, pressure, flow rate, etc. Examples are inert gases, combusted fuel gases, hydrogen and vacuum

Protective Barriers

Curtains or portable fireproof canvas shields, sometimes required to enclose work areas, when there is a possibility of the spray stream being misdirected, or where the glare of the arc or flame could injure unprotected eyes.

Protective Clothing

Leather or metal coated articles designed to prevent burns from ultraviolet radiation or misdirected particles.

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